By Randolph Quirk, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, Jan Svartvik
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The Oxford advisor to English Grammar is a scientific account of grammatical types and how they're utilized in smooth ordinary English. it's designed for inexperienced persons at intermediate and complex degrees and for lecturers, and is both appropriate for fast connection with info or for the extra leisured learn of grammatical subject matters.
The modern self-discipline of biolinguistics is starting to have the texture of clinical inquiry. Biolinguistics--especially the paintings of Noam Chomsky--suggests that the layout of language can be "perfect": language is an optimum method to stipulations of sound and that means. what's the scope of this inquiry?
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S There are different types of verb corresponding closely to the different types of object and complement. Sentences such as  and , which have subject complements, have intensive verbs and all other sentences have extensive verbs. The latter are intransitive if as in It rained steadily alt day  they do not permit any of the four object and complement types so far distinguished (see Note a). Extensive verbs are otherwise transitive. All transitive verbs take a direct object; some in addition permit an indirect object, and these will be distinguished as ditransitive.
18). Corresponding to the exclamation at the end of  there must be the sentence He is (very) kind  where the parenthesized very reminds us that the adjective phrase expressing the subject complement allows an indication of degree to be stated. It is this' indicating' part that is replaced by how in  when the adjective phrase is moved to initial position much as it would be in a question How kind is he 7  except that the declarative word-order is retained: How kind he is! •here is a further important difference.
Where isn't Mary? ', used as polite requests, likewise have no assertion form -■though (a final point of parallel between negative and interrogative) they56 The sentence: a preliminary viaw have a corresponding negative statement form, used as a tentative expression of desire: I wouldn't mind a cup of coffee. Shall we stop at the next village? (*I would mind a cup of coffee. ). " Where Isn't Mary! '' Yes I w6uld mind! 24 Other processes Interrogation and negation may be thought of as 'sentence processes': they are ways in which we may think of ourselves as taking a ready-made statement (and even a question like' Who is John 7' presupposes a statement 'John is X') and giving it a different dimension of meaning largely by replacing or adding constituents.
A Grammar of Contemporary English by Randolph Quirk, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, Jan Svartvik