A tonal grammar of Kwanyama by Riikka Halme PDF

By Riikka Halme

ISBN-10: 3896450840

ISBN-13: 9783896450845

Kwanyama ('Oshikwanyama' based on the reliable Namibian commonplace) is a Wambo language, and correspondingly belongs to the Bantu languages. it truly is spoken by way of way over part one million humans in South Angola and Namibia.
Certainly this quantity comprises the audio system of different closely-related Wambo types in Angola. those languages were studied fairly little, and the learn in their tonal platforms has been rather overlooked. the current booklet is the 1st comic strip of Kwanyama grammar with a scientific account on tone. the most goal is to supply an research of the tonal procedure of this language. hence the learn discusses either the lexical tone, i.e. tone as an inherent estate of a lexeme, and the grammatical tone wich marks grammatical houses. the writer lived in a Kwanyama-speaking neighborhood in Angola for approximately part a yr and had the chance there to enhance her linguistic competence. As a researcher she retains to the culture of Generative Phonology within the feel that there are principles that take the tone styles from the underlying illustration to a binary floor illustration, i.e. tonemes. so one can aid the reader to stick with the argumentation of the tonal research, this booklet is organised in this type of manner that the segmental and tonal degrees are mentioned individually, via discussions on tone in nouns, verbs and minor notice different types. After that, the learn is said to the broader context of study on Guthrie's team R languages, specially the Wambo languages. ultimately, the reader reveals nominal and verbal paradigms in addition to a few texts, and a vocabulary Kwanyama-Englisch containing approximately 6,000 entries.

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Not an apartment in back. Not a man's house. Not a daddy's. A house all my own. With my porch and my pillow, my pretty purple petunias. My books and my stories. My two shoes waiting beside the bed. Nobody to shake a stick at. Nobody's garbage to pick up after. Only a house quiet as snow, a space for myself to go, clean as paper before the poem. Sandra Cisneros, The House on Mango Street, 108 Noun phrases as appositives and nominative absolutes Noun phrases of the sort occasionally punctuated as fragments often function as appositives, separated from their surroundings by a dash or a comma.

Varieties of noun phrases In basic sentences, the components of noun phrases most frequently seen are noun alone, or with determiner (often a, an, or the), or with additional modifiers; pronoun alone or with modifiers; verbals, especially infinitives and gerunds; clauses; nominalized adjectives or other parts of speech. The most prevalent noun phrase is, of course, simply a noun or a noun with modifiers: The refrigerator hums. A bee thumps heavily, insistently, against a windowpane. Michael Cunningham, The Hours, 45 UNICEF looks after children in need.

Below, a sentence of four words and one of three words succinctly re-enforce the argument: What's true for graphics is true for aesthetics in general. Expanded supply creates expanded demand, which in turn feeds even more supply. Over time, people learn. They discover more about what's aesthetically possible and more about what they like. Exposure changes tastes. Virginia Postrel, The Substance of Style, 55 In all these examples, the effect derives far more from the unmistakable relation of a short sentence to longer sentences than from any differing characteristics of the sentence types.

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A tonal grammar of Kwanyama by Riikka Halme


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