By Hideshi Hattori, Makoto Misono, Yoshio Ono
Good acid catalysts are already getting used in numerous tactics in petroleum refining and are shortly being studied intensively in either educational and utilized fields for utilization in quite a few reactions. sturdy base catalysts also are gaining expanding attractiveness as power catalysts. either acidic and uncomplicated catalysts are promising not just with recognize to acid and base-catalysed reactions but in addition in fabrics sciences, reminiscent of the construction of adsorbents, sensors, ceramics, and so on. the current quantity comprises the textual content of 21 invited oral shows and fifty eight poster shows. the fabric covers a variety of elements on acid-base catalysis, from quantum chemistry to industrialised approaches.
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Additional info for Acid-Base Catalysis II: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Acid-Base Catalysis Ii, Sapporo, December 2-4, 1993
Thus, although the idea of hydrogen bond-assisted reactions assume that the fluoride anion operates under neutral conditions, KF-alumina apparently behaves as an effective solid base. It is completely opposite t o the fact that fluorinated alumina is known as a solid acid i n catalysis chemistry. KFalumina is now a commercially available common reagent in daily use for organic chemists. MECHANISMS OF THE BASICITY OF KF-ALUMINA Why the efficiency of the hydrogen bond-assisted reactions is increased when KF is supported on alumina?
E) 321 mg. 9 Si/AI = 70. 25. h) Calculated value based on chemical composition. i) Determined by titration. Table 5. 0 + + - + + - - - a) Qualitative estimation by Hammett indicators, t: acidic color, -: basic color, +: border line. b) 95 wt% AcOEt. c) An equimolar mixture of AcOH and EtOH. Figure 2 shows the change in BET surface area of silica-included Cs2,5Ho,5PW12040 with silica content. 2 in terms of weight ratio of silica to the Cs salt, where adsorption of nitrogen conformed to Langmuir isotherms, but at higher silica contents the adsorption complying with BET isotherms became predominant.
Table 1. Alkylation with KF-Celite in CH&N Reactant Product T/"C t/h Yield/%a) PhOH + Me1 + PhCH2CI PhOMe PhOCH2Ph rt 60 40 17 89 99 (87) PhSH + fvlel + n-BuCI PhSMe PhSBu-n PhNH;! 5 20 100 94 PhCH2CI PhNHCH2Ph 60 24 - + C5HloNBu-n rt 2 75 (CH, CO), CHMe rt 20 (PhCO),CHMe rt 48 n-Bul (CH3CO)&H2 (PhC0),CH2 + + Me1 Me1 (74) 100 (75) - (86) a) isolated yields are shown In parentheses; others were determined by GLPC Later, KF-Celite in methanol was found more effective than KOH in ethanol in a catalytic reaction (Eq.
Acid-Base Catalysis II: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Acid-Base Catalysis Ii, Sapporo, December 2-4, 1993 by Hideshi Hattori, Makoto Misono, Yoshio Ono