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By Josh Gregory,Kathleen Petelinsek

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Sounds at least as natural as Sie baute ein Schiff. 16 if the second sentence is meant as a specification, rather than a correction, of the first sentence. Standard assumptions about given-new-order are perhaps too gross. To sum up: (5) clearly contradicts two straightforward views about utterance structure in learner varieties: a. Grammatical functions, such as being a direct object, are clearly related to positions. b. Utterances proceed internally from "given" to "new". We will see below that there is an interpretation of (NP-V), which fits a number of other utterances.

The initial NP diese refers to the log which was thematic before, although in a different function and position. The case resembles (4), although there is a difference in that diese belongs to a stretch of quoted speech; thus, we will treat this use as deictic. Apparently, the whole utterance is highly elliptic; it could mean "This one is not good" or "I don't want this one" (to mention two possibilities), but any such interpretation would be arbitrary. Note that in Standard German, the corresponding elliptic utterance sounds quite natural, although the reversed order (nicht diese) is also possible, if not better.

G. 2: So long as we don't have criteria for what "subject" is in learner variety utterances (and elsewhere), universals of this kind are of little help (Perdue 1984a). (3) "Pragmatic" universals, such as "From known to unknown" (Behaghel 192332), "Me first" (Cooper and Ross 1975; see also Silverstein 1976), etc. We think that universals of this sort indeed play an important role in the organĀ­ isation of learner varieties. 2, we think it might be more practicable to describe first what is indeed operative in learner varieties in these terms and then look for possible extensions and generalisations of the results, rather than stating a universal and then applying it to learner varieties.

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Adverbs by Josh Gregory,Kathleen Petelinsek

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