Download e-book for iPad: Afghanistan Cave Complexes 1979-2004 by Mir Bahmanyar

By Mir Bahmanyar

ISBN-10: 184176776X

ISBN-13: 9781841767765

Following the Soviet invasion in 1979, the Mujahideen defenders of Afghanistan built and strengthened many usual cave structures to take advantage of as offer bases and shielding positions. The Taliban and Al Qaeda additional constructed those positions in the course of the Nineteen Nineties. Following the occasions of September eleven, 2001, those cave platforms have once again come to prominence and websites equivalent to Tora Bora ("Black Dust," a sequence of person caves) and Zhawar Kili (a huge advanced in japanese Afghanistan) have featured in information headlines all over the world. This identify presents a close research and visible documentation of those caves and underground structures. It additionally discusses the Coalition's tactical method of dislodging the enemy from those fortified positions.

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Whether or not these Iranians constituted a faction in court politics is an open question; but it can scarcely be doubted that they, as a collectivity, had a substantial presence in the highest echelons of Mughal service (the mansabdari). The process had begun to accelerate in the closing years of the sixteenth century, and is remarked in particular during the reign of the Mughal Jahangir (r. 1605–27), when the fortune of the most prominent Iranian family of the high Mughal period (of I’timad-ud-Daula, his son Asaf Khan, and his grandson Shayista Khan) was made.

For the sixteenth century, John Wills has made a case for the continuing validity of the traditional view, based on an examination of the South China coast between the Yangzi delta and Hainan, including the Pescadores and Taiwan. Arguing that maritime China offered relatively meagre opportunities for the interaction of power and profit, with its trade to Vietnam, Luzon, Taiwan, the Ryukyus, and Japan either too fraught with risk or of too little substance economically to interest the state, Wills points to how in the 1540s and 1550s, relatively small bands of pirates (wokou) played havoc in the countryside of Jiangnan and northern Zhejiang, attacking Hangzhou, Ningbo and even Nanjing with impunity.

C 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Published 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. P1: OTA/XYZ JWST143-c02 34 P2: ABC JWST143-Subrahmanyam January 28, 2012 15:52 T H E P O RT U G U E S E E M P I R E I N A S I A , Printer Name: Yet to Come 1500–1700 and returning only in the tenth century for a brief period.

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