By Lucinda L. Veeck, Nikica Zaninovic
In case you had a responsible strategy for opting for the healthiest and so much manageable conceptus from a cohort of growing to be preembryos, exchanging greater than a unmarried one in an effort to in attaining strong being pregnant charges will be moot. someday within the not-so-distant destiny, this can be a truth. Taking a step in the direction of that destiny, An Atlas of Human Blastocysts vividly illustrates the common and extraordinary morphology of mammalian blastocysts. The atlas demonstrates that prolonged tradition of blastocysts is now a possibility within the laboratory and issues us towards the day while it is going to be attainable to choose from a few fit hatched blastocysts.
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Additional info for An atlas of human blastocysts
Interestingly, the work of Hewitson and Leese71 indicates that the inner cell mass (ICM) generates its energy predominantly from glycolysis. An adequate supply of glucose may therefore be important for the optimal development of the ICM. In support of this, when mouse zygotes were cultured to the blastocyst in the absence of glucose, although resultant blastocysts implanted in the uterus after transfer, significantly more fetuses were lost compared with the control blastocysts which had developed in the presence of glucose59, indicating impaired ICM development or function.
Subsequently Gardner and Sakkas75 found that supplementing a culture medium based upon a simple balanced salt solution with amino acids and vitamins abolished this metabolic transformation. Lane and Gardner81 then went on to investigate the timing of such metabolic transformation in the mouse blastocyst. It was observed that exposure to culture medium MTF for just 3 h resulted in an increase in lactate production, with maximum perturbation occurring after 6 h. 4). Furthermore, the ability of blastocysts to oxidize pyruvate was significantly impaired after 6 h of culture in MTF.
Indeed this does appear to be the case. If mouse embryos are cultured to the blastocyst stage in the continual presence of EDTA, which inhibits glycolysis, then resultant fetal development is significantly lower than for those blastocysts which have been exposed to EDTA only for the first 48 h of culture from the zygote59. Similarly, the presence of EDTA in the culture medium for the first 72 h of culture significantly improved development of cattle embryos to the 8-cell stage. 3). Such data highlight the differing metabolism of the cleavage-stage and post-compaction embryo, and further support the hypothesis that different culture conditions are required at different stages of development in order to satisfy the changing requirements of the embryo77–79.
An atlas of human blastocysts by Lucinda L. Veeck, Nikica Zaninovic